The main reason for the low electrical efficiency is the nonlinear variation of the output voltage and current along with the change of the amount of radiation, the change of the temperature of the operating environment and the change of the electric charge, respectively.
Regarding the materials presented in [ 5 ], it contains various information from the general maximum power point tracking MPPT algorithms and the appropriate hardware design for the PSC. These days, the photovoltaic panel is one of the most important sources of renewable energy.
This panel can use DC power directly in the related applications. The main methods to be examined are: observation and tracking, incremental conductance and hill climbing.
That research includes several algorithms and hardware architectures related to solving the PSC problems that collects, classifies and compares the new MPPT techniques from a variety of references. The power of the proposed simulator is shown under the conditions of a partial shadow.
This research presents experimental tests for types of energy efficiency obtained from a photovoltaic unit under nonlinear loading in combination with the MPPT incremental conductance algorithm.
The first step includes a search algorithm that determines the location of approximate performance point near the general maximum power point and uses it as the starting point of the second stage.
The focus of that study was to evaluate the photovoltaic panel under nonlinear load conditions using an experimental setup of a photovoltaic array connected to a DC—AC converter and KVA inverter that produced a nonlinear load.